## Cooking up VR with I-chih

🕓 May 29, 2018 · ☕8 min read

Just a heads up dear reader - My posts have two parts. The first part is a personal story and the second part is purely about technology and code

– If youre here just for code snippets, then scroll down –

# This is I-chih

(she is the one to the left)

She is very concerned about the environment, and rightfully so - its an important issue. We first met back in 2017 at a clothe swapping party - back then it was after I opened a grocery store in Bergen, and I really needed some pants. We got along very well - she is always smiling and she is fun to work with. I like that in people. She is also taking her masters degree in visual communication here in Bergen, but before we get into that lets fast forward to January 2018.

I attended Global Game Jam, which is a global 48h weekend session to create a game, with Kjetil, one of my friends from south Norway at the University of Agder where I took by bachelors. Together with him and Peer who we met there, we created a 2D platformer in Unity called Echo. Ill surely write a more detailed post at a later point about attending GGJ. Anyway, I-chih took note of that I wasn't completely useless in Unity3D and asked my help with her masters project, which concerned Unity3D with VR integration using Oculus Rift.

Unity3D and VR? Awesome! I didn't own a VR headset and always wanted to see how its like making stuff for VR, so I said yes to help her out. Basically what I said yes to was to help her integrate her models and animations from Cinema4D - a 3D modeling and animation program - to Unity3D, write scripts to activate the animations whenever the player looked at the models, and to integrate Oculus Rift with the project aswell as letting the player teleport around the scenes to look around at the world.

It was actually quite fun, and here are the end results:

## Code!

Now I never intended to work much on Unity3D or blender or modelling or these kinds of things. I just happen to do it for fun. Even though my main work is about embedded systems, writing about 500 lines of code for device drivers can be very verbose for even seasoned engineers, while these kinds of VR, modelling and graphical things are fun to show off.

Aside from the digression, Ive gotten into a few things about how to integrate VR with unity projects. I was surprised at how simple it is to convert existing projects into VR in Unity3D, and indeed Unity3D is great at this - making it easy on the developers - looking aside from Unity's horrible sense of versioning: Unity comes with both semantic and rolling releases, whats that about? Oh yeah and the Version Control System (VCS) is pretty much a trainwreck (atleast at the time of writing this). I mean I don't know how much code Ive had to rewrite because of Unity's VCS, but its too much man.

My main takeaways from doing this project was the following:

• Using Oculus VR (OVR) Utilities
• Using the lovely animator controller
• Using the manager(-ish) pattern in Unity3D and keeping a tidy project

Lets look into each individually!

### Using OVR Utilites

To get started with using Oculus with Unity3D, one installs the OVR utilities. Indeed the guide (and documentation in general) from Unity is very good to follow. Download the utilities as a unitypackage here and import it to your project. Make sure your unity version is compatible with the OVR utilities.

Using Unity with Oculus touch controllers was pretty straight forward. Make sure the OVR Manager is in the scene and you should have access to the input methods.

Using OVR with UI was a bit of a challenge. The assignment was to be able to answer a quiz, built with Unity3Ds UI tools, in Oculus VR. To solve it, I followed this guide to the letter - a bit tricky. It worked but ..

A quite frustrating issue we ran into when porting from normal UI on the screen to OVR was the player clicked a button to answer a quiz question. The next question would automatically be answered on the same spot that the previous question was answered. At first I thought this was due to the player holding the button down for too long or that the UI switched to the next question too fast. I applied a delay in order to wait for a second before showing the next question:

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17  // Added for the time delay public void Wait(float seconds, Action action) { StartCoroutine(_wait(seconds, action)); } IEnumerator _wait(float time, Action callback) { yield return new WaitForSeconds(time); callback(); } (...) // Call the 1 second wait Wait(1, () => { ShowQuestion(); }); 

Note that in Unity3D you have to use coroutines in order to get time delays, since normal execution is (often) locked to frames (e.g. calling from void Update(){…}).

This fix didn't work. After analyzing the issue closer, I still couldn't find the root cause. In order to not waste more time on the issue, I figured I would create a guard statement to check the time between answers - if the time was shorter than a few sec since last answer, then the following answer would be ignored. This worked great, the code was slick aswell, and had us moving forward in no time:

 1 2 3 4  // Guard statement to omit issue with question jumping if (Time.time - timeElapsedQuestion < 2.0f) return; timeElapsedQuestion = Time.time; 

### The animator components and Unity3D Animation stack

To get animations working and to be able to alter them through the scripting system, unity provides the animator controller which is very slick for handling animations. Probably one of my favorite parts of the program. Even though code is itself very powerful for many things, sometimes using node editors can make the system much easier to represent and self documented. Since animation is indeed a very visual thing, node editors are often very useful for handling them - for example one of the most popular add-ons for blender is the node editor for animation handling.

Basically the requirement was to activate the animations of animated objects after a short delay when the player looked at the objects. So I did the following:

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35  // In Start() we get all the animated objects by tag: // GameObject.FindGameObjectWithTag("AnimObject"); bool ObjectIsVisible(Vector3 targetPoint) { Camera MainCam = gameObject.GetComponent().MainCamera; Vector3 screenPoint = MainCam.WorldToViewportPoint(targetPoint); if (screenPoint.z > 0 && screenPoint.x > 0 && screenPoint.x < 1 && screenPoint.y > 0 && screenPoint.y < 1) return true; else return false; } // Update is called once per frame void Update() { for (int i = 0; i < AnimObjects.Length; i++) // Loop through the objects { /* Get the data on the object */ _animObject = AnimObjects[i]; _animController = _animObject.GetComponent(); _curr_animAmount = _animController.GetFloat("AnimParam"); if (ObjectIsVisible(_animObject.transform.GetChild(0).position)) { // If object is visible _animController.SetFloat("AnimParam", ( _curr_animAmount < 5 ? _curr_animAmount + animationIncrementer : _curr_animAmount ) // Then increment animation ); } else { // Object invisible _animController.SetFloat("AnimParam", ( _curr_animAmount > 0 ? _curr_animAmount - animationIncrementer : _curr_animAmount ) // Then decrement animation ); } } } 

So in short this code will

1. Iterate through all objects which we will be animating
2. Check if the object is visible by player/main cam
3. Increment the AnimParam float up to 5 every frame the player is looking at object
4. If player is not looking at object, we will decrement the AnimParam

### Unity3D Manager pattern

There is a recurring pattern in Unity to have manager scripts to handle management of a scene, or at least as far as Ive seen (For example the OVR manager for Oculus). Basically this means that there are empty game objects in a scene which does not render or do anything purely visible, they just have scripts attached to them in order to handle various utility tasks. Atleast as far as Ive seen, this is a conventional way of building a unity project. The project tree may look something like this:

  | - (.. other gameobj ..)
| - Levelmanager
| - CameraManager
| - etc


These managers may also be nested under a top manager parent object. It gets obvious very soon that keeping a neat and refactored project in Unity and game development is super important!

For this project, part of the requirements was also to give the player the ability to “teleport” around the scene. This requirement was solved using this code in a manager object called CameraSwitcher:

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19  /* cameras is an array of Camera objects. We can get all cameras in the scene at start by calling the following code: cameras = Camera.allCameras; Next we can use the SetCameraActive function with an index to enable a given camera */ public void SetCameraActive(int _cameraIndex) { for (int i = 0; i < cameras.Length; i++) { cameras[i].gameObject.GetComponent().enabled = false; cameras[i].enabled = false; } cameras[_cameraIndex].gameObject.GetComponent().enabled = false; cameras[_cameraIndex].enabled = true; MainCamera = cameras[_cameraIndex]; Debug.Log("Main camera is now" + MainCamera); } 

Now basically what is does is go through a list of all the cameras in the scene, and once the SetCameraActive is called with a valid index, it will switch to that given camera. A neat little manager.